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“Populist leaders like Donald Trump, Marine Le Pen, Norbert Hoffer, Nigel Farage, and Geert Wilders are prominent today in many countries, altering established patterns of party competition in contemporary Western societies. Cas Mudde argues that the impact of populist parties has been exaggerated. But these parties have gained votes and seats in many countries, and entered government coalitions in eleven Western democracies, including in Austria, Italy and Switzerland. Across Europe, their average share of the vote in national and European parliamentary elections has more than doubled since the 1960s, from around 5.1% to 13.2%, at the expense of center parties. During the same era, their share of seats has tripled, from 3.8% to 12.8%. Even in countries without many elected populist representatives, these parties can still exert tremendous ‘blackmail’ pressure on mainstream parties, public discourse, and the policy agenda, as is illustrated by the UKIP’s role in catalyzing the British exit from the European Union, with massive consequences.”
Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash
Harvard Kennedy School
Ronald F. Inglehart and Pippa Norris
O voto britânico para abandonar a União Europeia (UE) e a eleição do presidente Donald Trump nos Estados Unidos deixou muitos surpreendidos no passado ano. O economista e comentarista irlandês, David McWilliams, denominou 2016, como “o ano do outsider". As previsões apontam que 2017 não será diferente, com eleições importantes que irão ocorrer por toda a Europa e muitos viram as eleições holandesas de 15 de Março de 2017, como "o primeiro grande teste" do que está por vir.
Why do we need political philosophy?
It is usually called the Allegory of Good and Bad Government, and what Lorenzetti’s frescos do is first of all to depict the nature of good and bad government respectively by means of figures who represent the qualities that rulers ought and ought not to have, and then to show the effects of the two kinds of government on the lives of ordinary people. So in the case of good government, we see the dignified ruler dressed in rich robes and sitting on his throne, surrounded by figures representing the virtues of Courage, Justice, Magnanimity, Peace, Prudence, and Temperance. Beneath him stand a line of citizens encircled by a long rope the ends of which are tied to the ruler’s wrist, symbolising the harmonious binding together of ruler and people. As we turn to the right we see Lorenzetti’s portrayal of the effects of good government first in the city and then in the countryside. The city is ordered and wealthy: we see artisans plying their trades, merchants buying and selling goods, nobles riding gaily decorated horses; in one place a group of dancers join hands in a circle. Beyond the city gate a well-dressed lady rides out to hunt, passing on the way a plump saddleback pig being driven into market; in the countryside itself peasants till the earth and gather in the harvest. In case any careless viewer should fail to grasp the fresco’s message, it is spelt out in a banner held aloft by a winged figure representing Security: Without fear, every man may travel freely and each may till and sow, so long as this commune still maintains this lady sovereign, for she has stripped the wicked of all power.
“The economy is a wholly owned subsidiary of the environment. All economic activity is dependent upon that environment with its underlying resource base.”
US Senator Gaylord Nelson on first Earth Day, 1970
A poluição do ar, de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, é actualmente a principal causa de morte, mas trata-se de uma mensagem que ainda não foi captada, conscientemente, pelas mentes dos decisores políticos em todo o mundo. O movimento de poluentes não respeita fronteiras políticas, e mata inocentes. O mais doloroso é as alterações climáticas que estão a colocar um enorme desafio para prever o movimento de poluentes. As decisões tomadas com base em estudos de modelos e legislações não estão a produzir o resultado desejado, pois existe sempre uma lacuna entre teoria e a prática.
No pretence to greater wisdom is made in these texts; whether time is a fourth dimension of the universe or a reified abstraction, whether it is continuous or atomistic, whether it can exist independently of motion to be measured, whether any meaning attaches to ‘before’ in the phrase ‘before Creation’ or ‘before the Big Bang’, are for others to determine. The same St Augustine, faced with the question what God was doing before he created the world, quoted, though he did not endorse, the jocular answer, ‘Preparing hells for folk who invented clever conundrums like that’; I shall not take the chance that a true word was spoken in jest.
Nor shall I consider whether time proceeds in a straight line or in cycles. Although it is not true that linear time was a Judaeo-Christian speciality, set against the cyclical time symbolised in late Graeco-Roman paganism as a serpent devouring its tail, some philosophers did speak of time in cyclical terms. That poses conceptual problems that I shall not discuss; rather I shall confine myself to time in its ordinary-language or man-in-the-street sense, and shall concentrate on the methods by which its passage is and has been measured.
The English word ‘time’ may refer to a more or less closely defined period, from ‘a short time’, meaning not very long, to ‘the time of the Pharaohs’, some three thousand years; it may also refer to the ‘indefinite continuous duration’, as the Oxford English Dictionary expresses it, in which all events have taken place, are taking place, and will take place. These texts can be complemented by the book A Brief History of Time - Stephen Hawking